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Authors' Guidelines


Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Use decimal points (not decimal commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above).


Should contain the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background. Avoid a detailed literature review.


Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.




This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


TITLE: This should be concise and informative.

Authors’ names and affiliations:   Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript number immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the telephone number is provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

PRESENT/PERMANENT ADDRESS: If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.


Immediately after the abstract, a maximum of 6 keywords should be provided., using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of").  Be sparing with abbreviations:  only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Acknowledgements should be made in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.  List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. All crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc. should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related

DOCUMENTS:      http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/   for   further information.



Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.  Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly.  Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processing packages build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.



  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
  • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Submit each figure as a separate file.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.


TEXT: All citations within the text should follow these formats:

  1. Single author: the author's name (without initials) and the year of publication;
  2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
  3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.

EXAMPLES: "as reported (Olusola, 2000a, 2000b, 2004; Mohammed and Tarfa, 1999). Uche (2008)

have recently shown ...."

LIST: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.


Reference to a journal publication:

Alamu, J.F. and Tall, O. 2006. Macro-Economic determinants of the growth of the crop sub-sector in the Nigerian Economy, 1980-1999.Asset Series C 1(1):81-92.

Reference to a book:

Helleiner, G.K. 1966. Peasant agriculture, government and economic growth in Nigeria. Homewood, Illinois, Irwin Press.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

Jonathan, G. 1999. Agriculture and national development. In: Oduye, M.L. and Suswan, J.T. (Eds.), Politics and the agrarian revolution in Africa. Inter-Academy Publishers, Lagos, pp. 324-334.


Authors are required to assign the copyright of their articles to JAAR, subject to personal use exemption. Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' Reproduction, posting, transmission or other distribution or use of the article or any material therein, in any medium as permitted by a personal-use exemption or by written agreement of JAAR, requires credit to JAAR as copyright holder (e.g., JAAR © 2009).

Personal-use Exceptions

The following uses are always permitted to the author(s) and do not require further permission from JAAR provided the author does not alter the format or content of the articles, including the copyright notification:

  • Posting of the article on the author(s) personal website, provided that the website is non- commercial;
  • Posting of the article on the internet as part of a non-commercial open access institutional repository or other non-commercial open access publication site affiliated with the author(s)'s place of employment;
  • Posting of the article on a non-commercial course website for a course being taught by the author at the university or college employing the author; and
  • Storage and back-up of the article on the author's computer(s) and digital media (e.g.,

diskettes, back-up servers, flash drives, etc.), provided that the article stored on these computers and media is not readily accessible by persons other than the author(s).

People seeking an exception, or who have questions about use, should   contact JAAR at jaar.copyright@arcnigeria.org


Author(s) should submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of 3 potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.



One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. JAAR will send PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or    higher)   available   free    from:   http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/acrrsystemreqs.html#70win If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections and return to JAAR in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post.  Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will not be considered at this stage except with permission from the Editor.

In order to get your article published quickly, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that JAAR   may proceed with   the   publication   of   your   article   if   no response   is   received.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. Additional paper offprints can be ordered by the authors. An order form with prices will be sent to the corresponding author.


For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available)

please visit this journal's homepage. You can track accepted articles at http://www.arcnigeria.org/jaar